martes, 26 de febrero de 2008



Jamaica is an island and country of the Greater Antilles, of 240 km from length and a maximum of 80 km from width, located in the Caribbean sea. It is to 630 km from the Central American continent, to 150 km to the south of Cuba and to 180 km to the west of the island of The Spanish woman, in that Haiti and the Dominican Republic are.


The first settlers of the island were the Arawak, proceeding from South America, which they came to the island between(among) 1000 and 400 adC. It is believed that these settlers went out after the contact with the Europeans, though there is the one who affirms that they have survived.
Jamaica was claimed as Spanish possession after Christopher Colón will come to the island in 1494. Colon used the island as a ministate for his(her,your) family. The British admiral William Penn and the General Venables took the island in 1655. In his(her,your) first 200 years of British domain(control), Jamaica turned into the major exporter of sugar of the world, producing 77000 tons a year between(among) 1820 and 1824. This productivity worn slave of Africa would never have been achieved without the workforce(manpower).

At the begining of the 19th century, the great dependence in the slavery of the British Empire did that the population of blacks in the island was 20 times major that that of whites(targets), situation that was threatening constant with revolts and conflicts.
After a series of revolts the slavery was officially abolished in 1834.
In the 20th century, Jamaica was gaining(earning) independence of the United Kingdom, in 1958 it(he,she) turned into a province of the Federation of the West Indies, obtaining his(her,your) total independence on August 6, 1962.

An economic important growth, of approximately 6 % a year it(he,she) marked his(her,your) first 10 years of independence under conservative governments led by the prime ministers Alexander Bustamante, Donald Sangster and Hugh Shearer. This economic growth came promoted by the investments in bauxite, tourism, manufactures and, in minor measure, agriculture. In 1972, one change of government it(he,she) made decline again the economy coming to the end of 1982 where the GDP came below the levels of 1972. The foreign debt grew under Michael Manley's successive legislatures, accompanied of fiscal deficits, which propitiated(caused) the imposition of measures of austerity of the International Monetary Fund.

The economy in decadence, Manley's international socialism, his(her,your) friendship with Fidel Castro and the fear of the incipient communism took to a few choices(elections) pressed between(among) the People's National Party and the Jamaica Labour Party, turning out to be a victor the latter. The economic crisis continued until middle of the 80, helped by the closing of both principal companies of aluminium of the country and the decay of the tourism. At the end of 80 the industry began to recover, close to the tourism, which propitiated(caused) an economic improvement after a decade of crisis. The elect government from 1989 has stimulated economic reforms that have improved the fiscal situation.

In 70 both predominant political parties there were tied to two bands rivals of Kingston, strongly armed. This, close to the increasing traffic of cocaine in the middle of the 80 it(he,she) led to violent situations. This has led to the urban wars of Kingston from 1990 up to the current importance. The rural zones of the country are free of the conflict.

The original capital of Jamaica was the Spanish people(village) of Saint Catherine, the former colonial capital. The Spanish renamed the city as Santiago of the Vega. In 1655 when the Britishers took the island, most of the capital was inflamed by the British troops. The city was reconstructed and been called Spanish Town, remained as the capital of the island until 1872, when Kingston turned into the capital. In addition, Jamaica was the first republic in (1623) being founded.


The island is composed principally by mountainous area surrounded with a small band of coast. They are in the habit of the cities establishing in this coastal plain.
The climate in Jamaica is tropical, is in the habit of being hot and humid, though in the zones of mountain it can be something fresher.
In spite of his(her,your) situation, in the middle of the Caribbean Sea, it(he,she) does not suffer with so many frequency the hurricanes as his(her,your) neighboring(similar) islands. This owes principally to the wind originated in his(her,your) mountains, which turns them aside.

Religion And Culture

Jamaica is famous for its rich culture and its music, which have done to the famous island in the global area.

The musical kinds(genres) ska, reggae, rocksteady, dub, dancehall, ragga and ragga jungle, have been all conceived in Jamaica. The most popular music is the reggae, with its different styles and mixtures(mixings), dub, dance hall, raggas, raggamufin, early reggae or reggae roots, announced to great scale for the Jamaican Bob Marley who by means of his(her,your) music deepened and made known a culture that reverberated worldwide. The first one of these kinds(genres) was the ska, "father" of the following ones, there assumes the creation of this kind(genre) to "The Skatalites". Musical others less known but more ancient of the island are I mention, the Ghost and the Calypso.

The biggest religion inside the country is the Rastafarismo, which recognizes Haile Selassie I, last emperor of Ethiopia (Of iure: 1930-1974; of fact: 1916-1936 and 1941-1975), as the God done man. One of the icons of the above mentioned belief, was the same Singer Bob Marley; Who is estimated as a prophet for the Jamaican people(village) and is the person in charge of the great growth of the religion for its world reputation.

Values and Characteristics

of Jamaican People.

Most of the people in Jamaica are descended from the African slaves from long ago. Ancestors of other Jamaicans may have been explorers and settlers. As the cities in Jamaica grew, more immigrants decided to move to Jamaica. Most immigrants come from China or India.

The way people in Jamaica get food is not by going to the local grocery store but by going to a traditional market in the middle of town. They carry the food supplies back home by balancing a basket on the top of their heads with the food inside.
The people in Jamaica wear colorful robes draped over soft linen underneath. They wear this typical clothing along with hats to match their robes. English is the official language of Jamaica.

Jamaica: reggae, liberate, happiness.One speaks English, is listened reggae at every hour in any place, manages for the left side. Rum is drunk as if it was a water, there is elaborated one of the most exquisite and famous coffeesof the planet, one smokes excellent tobacco. It is possible to climb a mountain or take a bath at the foot of a waterfall; it is possible to dive or sunbathe without any clothes. you can be fishing, and there is played the cricket or to the golf. It is enjoyed some of the most beautiful beaches the Carib, is dreamed I wake up, every moment of the demurrage(stay) is lived as a dream.


For nearly two decades basketball experienced relatively moderate growth, and limited international success. But in the late 90’s all this changed when the male senior squad regained the 1996 Caribbean Championship title, and the Under 18 team went on to win the Junior Championship in 1997 and 1999. In 2001, the juniors were third in the tournament.
The female program, even though not as vibrant as the males’, has been doing relatively well. Several players have received scholarships to tertiary institutions mainly in the United States, while a few have played in the semi and professionally in leagues in the U.S. and Europe. Possibly our most successful player to date is Simone Edwards who has played in Europe and in the U.S with the WNBA Seattle storms.Over the last 10 years, basketball has become the fastest growing sport on the island, and today ranks in the top five in terms of participation and popularity


Lindsay was born in Jamaica, and had lived in Dalton, Huddersfield, following his arrival from Jamaica at aged five, where attended Rawthorpe Junior School and Rawthorpe High School. A carpet fitter, he subsequently moved to Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire.

Newspaper reports indicate Lindsay was a violent, racist, drug dealer in Huddersfield prior to his conversion to Islam:
"He thought all white people were trash and said he was going to get them all on drugs to kill them off."

Lindsay married a 29 year old Kinnity woman, Aoife Nadiyah Molloy, with whom he remained for eight days before divorcing her to marry another Irish woman, Samantha Lewthwaite. Lewthwaite, a native of Aylesbury, had converted to Islam at age 15. Lewthwaite lived with him and gave birth to their second child two months after his death. Lindsay also persuaded his mother, Mary McLeod, the daughter of an Evangelical Christian, to convert to Islam. He engaged in "work experience" with a local council, which he is said to have enjoyed, although the pay was poor.

Friends say that after his conversion he rejected his old friends and old habits and completely embraced an extremist anti-Western understanding of Islam, reminiscent of al-Qaeda rhetoric. His mother recalls their shock at the 9/11 attacks and wondered how Muslims could have done something like that. His wife, Lewthwaite, now 22 (who has since unofficially taken the Muslim name Sherafiyah) denied Lindsay's involvement until authorities produced forensic evidence to confirm his identity.She later went on record stating she abhorred the attacks and that her husband's mind had been poisoned by radicals. Lindsay was influenced greatly by the extremist and discredited preacher Abdullah el-Faisal (who was opposed vehemently in London by mosques such as Brixton Mosque) and Lindsay also had many of el-Faisal's taped lectures.


Lindsay, who changed his name to Abdullah Shaheed Jamal after his conversion to Islam, detonated the bomb that killed 26 people, plus himself, on a train travelling on the Piccadilly line between the King's Cross St. Pancras and Russell Square Tube stations, under Marchmont Street where Russell Supermarket is, besides he felt happy when the events of the 9/11 occurred, this two events shows a clearly racist behavior, specifically with the American people.

The angry and the intolerance can be considerate more like ant values, caused possibly by the growing in a environment that has a predominating race, like is Jamaica with the black people, this could has a negative effect for Lindsay.

On the other hand, this not happen with all Jamaican people, so the causes for this anti-values can be connected directly with particular family and social events in the infancy of Lindsay; Even this is possible that this theory could be truth, it can be other facts that are not meeting to explain this angry and intolerance.
Limits in the lifestyle because of values
In Jamaica the people feel the life with a spiritual sense establishing relations with all the simple and particular things that the life could offer to them, like the nature the love between a couple, and the relax that a reggae song could bring to their minds, Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. In Jamaica, for example, values might include the about nature, wealth, competition, individualism or religiosity.

Even the the peace and love are a good description of the values in Jamaica there are limits to some aspects that the society considerate unmoral, like the bigamy and Satanism, because those, are ideologies and lifestyles that interfered with a possible harmonium atmosphere.